Philosophy: Latin terms with English translations




It would is a nearly impossible task to come up with a comprehensive dictionary of Latin terms used in any particular setting. Philosophical Latin is highly technical and individual philosophers often adapted existing terms for their own needs. Still, it is my hope that this wordlist will be useful to someone just starting to read philosophic works in the original Latin. Most of these terms were used in medieval texts, because Ancient Rome never matched Greece as a center of philosophic studies. Roman philosophy was rather eclectic, even at its best (Lucretius, for example). This list of terms (over 500 entries!) generally only includes individual words and notions, leaving aside common sayings such as "Cogito ergo sum" etc. I am considering making a separate list of such phrases.

A

ABLATIO
- denial
ABSOLUTE - absolutely
ABSTRACTIO - abstraction
ABSTRACTIVUM - abstractive
ACCIDENS - accident
ACCIDENTALITER - accidentally
ACCIDERE - to happen
ACCIPERE - to receive or undertake
ACTIO - action
ACTUS - act, actuality
AD ALIQUID - relative to something
ADAEQUATIO - adequation, commensuration
ADAEQUABILITAS - adequability
AENIGMA - enigma, riddle
AEQUALITAS - equality
AEQUIPARANTIA - comparison, equiparance, equivalence
AEQUALITAS AEQUIPARANTIAE - comparative equality
AEQUIVOCUM - equivocal
AEQUIVOCATIO - equivocation
AESTIMATIO - estimation
AETERNITAS - eternity
AEVUM - aeon, age
AFFECTIO - affection, condition, affect
AFFECTUS - affect
AGERE - to do, to work, to act
AGENS - agent
ALIQUID - something
ALIUD - other
ŔLLEGORIA - allegory
ALTERATIO - alteration
ALTERATUM - other
AMOR - love
AMPHIBOLIA - amphibology
ANALOGIA - analogy
ANALOGIA ATTRIBUTIONIS - attributive analogy
ANALOGIA PROPORTIONIS - proportional analogy
ANIMA - soul
ANIMAL - animal
ANIMUS - spirit
APPARENTIA - evidence, clarity
APPETITUS - appetite, inclination; desire
APPREHENSIO - apprehension
A POSTERIORI - dependent upon experience or evidence
A PRIORI - independent of experience
APROPRIATUM - apropriated quality or aspect
APTITUDO - aptitude
APTITUDINALIS - aptitudinal
ARBITRIUM LIBERUM - free choice, freedom of will
ARGUMENTUM - argument
ARGUMENTUM A PRIORI - a priori argument
ARGUMENTUM A POSTERIORI - a posteriori argument
ARS - art, skill
ARTIFEX - creator, artist
ARTIFICIALIS - artificial
ARTIFICIOSE - artificially
ASSIMILARI - to be assimilated
ATTRIBUTUM - attribute, property
AUCTOR - author, authoritative source
AUCTORITAS - authority, power, opinion, advice, encouragement, will, authoritative writing
AUGMENTATIO - augmentation, increase

B

BEATITUDO
- beatitude, blessedness, happiness
BEATUS - blessed, happy
BENEDICTUM - blessed
BENEFICIUM - favor, boon
BENEVOLENTIA - benevolence, good will, kindness, friendship
BONUM - (moral) good, kindness, benefit, prosperity, property, advantage

C

CATEGOREMATICE
- categorematically
CATHEGREUMA, CATEGOREMA - categorematic term
CATEGORIA - category
CAUSA - cause, reason
CAUSA DEFICIENS - deficient cause
CAUSA EFFICIENS - efficient cause
CAUSA FINALIS - final cause
CAUSA FORMALIS - formal cause
CAUSA MATERIALIS - material cause
CAUSA ACCIDENTALIS - accidental cause
CAUSA PROPRIA - proper cause
CAUSATIVUM - causative, causing
CERTITUDO - certitude
CIVITAS - city, community
COAPTATIO - connection, joining together
COGERE - connect, draw together, infer, conclude
COGITARE - to think, to judge, to cogitate
COGITATIO - thought, judgment, cogitation
COGITATIVA VIRTUS - the cogitative faculty
COGNITIO - knowledge, cognition, acquaintance, consideration, conception, notion, idea
COGNITIO ABSTRACTIVA - abstractive knowledge
COGNITIO INTUITIVA - intuitive knowledge
COGNITIO NATURALIS - natural knowledge
COGNOSCENS - knower
COGNOSCERE - to learn, to perceive
COGNOSCIBILE - cognoscible, knowable
COGNOSCIBILITAS - knowability
COLLECTIO - inference
COLLIGO - to gather, to bring together, to bring out, to infer
COMMENTARIUS (COMMENTARIUM) - commentary
COMMUNE - common
COMMUNIA - common, joint, universal
COMMUNICARE - to be common, to connect, to impart, to partake
COMMUNIO - communion, partaking
COMMUNIS - common
COMPENDIUM - shortening, abbreviation, compendium
COMPLEXIO - combination, inference, constitution
COMPLEXUM - complex
COMPONERE - to compound
COMPOSITIO - composition
COMPOSITUM - composite
COMPREHENSOR - one who comprehends
CONCEPTIO - conception, comprehending
CONCEPTUS - concept, conflux, collecting, gathering
CONCIPERE - to take, to receive, to perceive, to conceive, to think, to perceive
CONCRETUM - concrete, real, definite
CONDITIO - condition, creation
CONFESSIO - confession
CONIUNGERE - to conjoin
CONTEMPLATIO - contemplation
CONTINGENS - contingent, possible
CONTINUUM - continuum
CONTRADICTORIA - contradictories
CONTRAHERE - to contract, to limit
CONTRARIA - contraries
CONTUERE - to behold, to see
CONVENIENTIA - agreement, relation
CONVERTI - to be converted
CORRUPTIO - corruption, destruction
CORRUPTUM - corrupted, destroyed
CREATURA - creature, creation
CREDO - to believe, crede
CULTURA - culture, cultivation, education

D

DEFECTUS
- deffect, weakness
DEFINITIO - definition
DEFINITIO NOMINIS - definition of name, nominal definition
DEFINITIO REI - definition of the thing, real definition
DEIFORMIS - deiform, godlike
DEIFORMITAS - deiformity
DELIBERATIO - deliberation, consideration
DEMONSTRATIO - demonstration
DEMONSTRATIO PROPTER QUID - demonstration based on the nature of the thing investigated
DEMONSTRATIO QUIA - demonstration based on the effect
DENOMINATIVE - denominatively
DESCRIPTIO - description
DETERMINATE - determinately
DIALECTICA - dialectic
DICTIO - diction, saying
DIFFERENS - differring
DIFFERENS NUMERO - differing in number
DIFFERENTIA - difference
DIFFERENTIA COMMUNIS - common difference
DIFFERENTIA PROPRIA - proper difference
DIFFERENTIA MAXIME PROPRIA - most proper difference
DIFFINITIO - definition
DIFFINITIO SUBSTANTIALIS - substantial definition
DIFFINITIO QUID NOMINIS - nominal definition
DIFFINITIO QUID REI - definition of the thing, real definition
DESCENSUS PER DEFINITIONEM - descent by definition
DILECTIO - love, choice
DIRECTE - directly
DISCERNERE - to discern, to distinguish
DISCIPLINA - discipline, knowledge, subject
DISCIPLINATUS - disciplined
DISCRETIO - discretion, discretness
DISCRETIO PERSONALIS - personal discretion
DISCURSUS - discourse, speach
DISIUNGERE - to disjoin
DISPOSITIO - disposition
DISPONENS (MEDIUME) - disposing medium
DISPUTATIO - disputation, discussion, investigation
DISTINCTIO - distinction
DISTINCTUM - distinct
DIVERSUM - diverse
DIVERSUM - difference
NON DIFFERENTES PROPRIE SED TANTUM DIVERSAE - not differing in the proper sense of the word but only diverse
DIVERSIFICATIO - diversification, diversity
DIVERSIVOCA - diversivocal
DIVIDERE - to divide, to separate
DIVIDUALIA - dividuals
DIVISIO - division, resolution
DOCTRINA - doctring, teaching, area of study
DONUM - gift, faculty
SEPTEM DONA SPIRITUS SANCTI - the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit

E

EFFECTIVE
- effectively, in effect
EFFECTUS - effect
EFFICIENS (MEDIUM) - efficient medium
ELEMENTUM - element
ELENCHUS - elenchus, Socratic examination
EMINENTER - eminently
ENS - that which is, the thing which is, a being
ENS NATURAE - thing of nature, that which is in nature, natural thing
ENS RATIONIS - that which is in reason, a thing of reason
ENTHYMEMA - enthymeme (an informally stated syllogism)
ENTITUS - entity
ENUNCIATIO (ENUNTIATIO) - enunciation, declaration
ENUNTIATIONIS VERITAS - truth of statement
ERROR - error, mistake, departing from truth, delusion
ESSE - being
ESSENDI - of being, pertaining to being
ESSENTIA - essence
ESSENTIALITER - essentially
EVIDENTER - evidently
EVIDENTIA - evidence
EXEMPLAR - exemplar, pattern, model, image
EXISTIMATIO - estimation, opinion
EXPERIENTIA - experience, experiment
EXPERIMENTUM - experience, experiment

F

FABRICA
- art, trade, skillful production, image
FACERE - to do, to act
FACTIO - making
FACULTAS - faculty
FALSIGRAFIS - falsigraphic
FALSUM - false, erroneous, wrong
FICTIO - fiction, fabrication
FIDES - faith
FIGURA - figure
FINIS - end
FINIS OPERIS - end of the operation
FINIS OPERANTIS - end of the one who performs the operation
FORMA - form
FORMA SEPARATA - separated form
FORMABILIS - apt to be formed or fashioned, subject to form, formable
FORMALITER - formally
FRUCTUS - fruit

G

GENERATIO
- generation
GENUS - genus
GENERALISSIMUM - generalissimum, most general genus
GLOSSA (GLOSSEMA) - gloss, obsolete or foreign word that requires explanation

H

HABERE
- to have, condition, state
HABITUDO - condition, aptitude, relation, respect, capacity for something
HABITUS - condition, habit, character
HAECCEITAS - haecceity, hecceity, “thisness”

I

IDEA
- idea
IDEM - the same
IDENTITAS - identity
IDOLUM SEU FANTASMA - idol, fantasm
ID QUOD EST - that which is
IGNORANTIA - ignorance
ILLUMINATIO - illumination
ILLUMINATIO SCIENTIALIS - scientific illumination
IMAGINATIO - imagination
IMAGINARI - to be imaged
IMAGO - image
IMPLICATIO - implication
INCARNATIO - incarnation
INCOMPLEXUM - incomplex
INCOMPOSSIBILE - incompossible
INCONTINGENS - incontingent
INDIFFERENTER - indifferently
INDIFFERENTIA - indifference
INDISTANTIA - proximity, indistance
INDIVIDUARI - to be individuated
INDIVIDUATIO - individuation
INDIVIDUUM - individual
INDIVISIO - indivision, unity
INFERENTIA - inference
INFINITUM - infinitum, infinity
INFORMARE - to inform, to fill
INFORMATIO - information
INHAERENTIA - inherence
INSPIRARE - inspire
INSTAR - image, likeness
INTELLECTUALE - the intellectual (thing)
INTELLECTUS - intellect, understanding, meaning, conception, idea
INTELLECTUS ADEPTUS - acquired intellect
INTELLECTUS AGENS - active intellect
INTELLECTUS FORMALIS - formal intellect
INTELLECTUS POSSIBILIS - possible intellect
INTELLECTUS PRACTICUS - practical intellect
INTELLECTUS SPECULATIVUS - speculative intellect
INTELLEGERE - to perceive, to undestand
INTELLIGENTIA - understanding, intelligence
INTELLIGENTIA SEPARATA - seperated intelligence
INTENDERE - to intend
INTENSIVE - intensively
INTENTIO - intention, knowledge, meaning
INTENTIONALE ESSE - intentional being
INTENTIO PRIMA - first intention
INTENTIO SECUNDA - second intention
INTENTIA GENERALIS - general intention
INTENTIONIS RES - a thing of intention
INTUITUS - intuition, intuitive knowledge
INVENTIO - invention, discovery
INVOLUCRUM - involucre, covering, case
IUDICIUM - judgment
IUS - right

L

LECTIO
- lection , reading
LEX - law
LIBER - book
LOCUS - place
LUMEN - illumination, light
LUX - light

M

MALUM
- evil, sin
MANERIES - manner
MANUDUCTIO - manuduction, leading by the hand
MATERIA - matter
MATERIALIS - material
MATERIALITER - materially
MATHEMATICA - mathematics
MEDIUM - middle, medium, mean
MEMORIA - memory,
MEMORATIVA VIRTUS - memorative faculty
MENS - mind
MERITUM - merit
MODUS - mode
MOTUS - motion, movement
MOTUS NATURALIS - natural motion
MOTUS VIOLENTUS - violent motion
MUNDUS - universe, world
MUTATIO - mutation, change

N

NATURA
- nature
NECESSARIUM - necessary
NECESSITAS - necessity
NEGATIO - negation
NIHIL - nothing
NOMEN - word, significative word, noun, name
NOMINATIO - nomination
NOTIO - notion, conception
NOTITIA - knowledge, cognition, idea
NOVITAS - newness
NUMERUS - number

O

OBIECTIVUM
- objective (in the mind), formal
OBIECTUM - object
OPERATIO - operation
OPINIO - opinion
OPPOSITIO - opposition, contradictory
OPPOSITUM - opposite
OPUS - work
ORATIO - discourse
ORDO - order

P

PARADOXA
- paradox
PARS - part
PARTICIPATIO - participation
PARTICULARE - particular
PASSIO - passion, sufferring
PATI - to suffer, to undergo, to receive
PATIENS - patient
PECCATUM - sin
PERFECTIO - perfection
PERFECTIVUM - perfective
PER SE - essentially, substantially, through itself
PERITIA - expertness, learning, experience
PERSONA - person
PERSUASIO - persuasion
PHANTASIA - phantasy
PONERE - to affirm, to posit
POSITIO - affirmation, position, thesis
POSSE - to be able
POSSIBILITAS - possibility
POSTPRAEDICAMENTUM - postpraedicament, postcategory
POTENTIA - power, potency, potentiality
POTESTAS - power, might
PRAEDICABILE - predicable
PRAEDICABILIS ET SUBJICIBILIS - predicable and subjectible
PRAEDICAMENTA - the categories
PRAEDICAMENTALE - predicamental, categorical
PRAEDICARE - to predicate, to name
PRAEDICATIO - predication
PRAXIS - praxis, actions
PRINCIPIUM - principle, beginning
PRIVATIO - privation, deficiency
PROBABILIS - probable
PROPORTIO - proportion
PROPORTIONALITAS - proportionality
PROPOSITIO - proposition
PROPOSITIO PER SE NOTA - proposition known through itself
PROPRIETAS - property
PROPRIUM - proper to, peculiar to, property
PROPTER QUID - q.v. Argumentum a priori.
PROVIDENTIA - providence, foresight

Q

QUADRIVIUM
- quadrivium
QUALITAS - quality
QUANDO - when, time
QUANTITAS - quantity
QUIA - q.v. ARGUMENTUM A POSTERIORI.
QUID - what
QUIDDITAS - quiddity
QUIES - rest

R

RAPTUS
- rapture
RATIO - reason, nature, relation, principle, ground, argument, definition, criterion
RATIO REI - the essens of the thing
RATIO SEMINALIS - seminal reason
RATIO AETERNA - eternal reason
RATIONABILITER - reasonably
RATIOCINATIO - reasoning, ratiocination
RATIONALE - the rational
RATIONALITER - rationally
RECEPTUM - recept
RECIPERE - to receive, to be impacted
RECTIFICATUM - rectified
RECTITUDO - regularity, righteousness
REFLEXE - reflexively
RELATIO - relation
REMINISCENTIA - reminiscence
REMITTI - to remit
REMOTIO - denial, removal, withdrawing
REMOVERE - to remove, to deny
RES - thing
RES SUBIECTA - subject thing
RESPECTUS - in respect to
RESOLVERE - to resolve
REVELATIO - revelation

S

SANTA SCRIPTURA
- Holy Writ
SAPIENTIA - sapience, wisdom
SCIBILE - knowable
SCIENTIA - knowledge, scientific knowledge, science
SCIENTIA EXPERIMENTALIS - experimental science
SCIENTIA PRACTICA - practical science
SCIENTIA SPECULATIVA - speculative science
SCIRE - to know, to understand, to perceive
SENSIBILE - the sensible
SENSUS - sense
SENSUS EXTERNI - external senses
SENSUS INTERNI - internal senses (or SENSUS INTERIOR, interior sense)
SENSUS COMMUNIS - common sense
SENSUS CORPOREUS - corporeal sense
SENSUS SPIRITUALIS - spiritual sense
SENTENTIA - sentence
SERMO - sermon, oration, speech
SIC et NON - yes and no
SIGNIFICATIO - signification, meaning
SIGNIFICATIONIS VERITAS - truth of signification
SIGNUM - sign
SIMILITUDO - likeness, similitude
SIMPLICITER - simply, absolutely
SINGULARE - singular
SINGULARITAS - singularity
SITUS - position, situation, disposition
SPATIUM - space
SPECIALISSIMUM (SPECIES INFIMA) - the lowest species, the most special species
SPECIES - species, form
SPECIES INTENTIONALIS - intentional species
SPECIES CORPOREA - corporeal species
SPECIES INTELLIGIBILIS - intelligibilis species
SPECIES EXPRESSA - express species
SPECIES IMPRESSA - impressed species
SPECIES SENSIBILIS - sensible species
SPECIES LOGICA - logical species
SPECIES PRAEDICABILIS - predicable species
SPECIFICARE - to specify, to specificate
SPECIFICATIO - specification
SPECIFICATIVUM - specificative
SPECULATIO - speculation
SPIRITUS - spirit
SPIRITUS SANCTUS - Holy Spirit
STATUS - state, condition
SUBALTERNA GENERA - subordinate genuses
SUBIECTIVUM - subjective
SUBIECTUM - subject
SUBIICI ALIQUIBUS PRAEDICATIS - to be a subject having certain predicates
SUBIICIBILIS - subjectible
SUBSISTENTIA - subsistence
SUBSTANTIA - substance
SUBSTANTIA CONIUNCTA - conjunct substance
SUBSTANTIA PRIMA - first substance
SUBSTANTIA SECUNDA - second substance
SUBSTANTIA SEPARATA - separated substance
SUBSTANTIA SUBIECTA - subjectible substance
SUBSTITUTIO - substitution
SUBSTARE - to underlie
SUICIDUM - suicide
SUPPONERE - to suppose, to hypothesize, to stand for
SUPPOSITIO - suppositio, premise
SUPPOSITUM - subject, subordinate, suppositum
SUSCEPTIO - a taking on, susception, assumption
SUSCIPERE - to assume, to take on
SYLLOGISMUS - syllogism
SYMBOLUM - symbol
SYNCATEGOREMA, SINCATEGOREUMA - syncategorematic term

T

TENERE
- to hold, to know
TERMINUS - term
TOPICA - topic
TRADITIO - tradition
TRANSCENDENS - transcendent, transcendental
TRANSCENDENTALES - the transcendentals
TRANSLATIO - translation, transference
TRANSUMPTIO - transumption
TRIVIUM - trivium
TROPUS - trope

U

UBI
- where, place
UMBRA - shadow
UNIO - union
UNITAS - unity
UNIVERSALE - universal
UNIVERSALIA (COMMUNIA) - universals
UNIVERSITAS - whole (of things)
UNIVOCA (OR UNIVOCALIS) - univocal
UNIVOCATIO - univocation
UNUM - one
USIADIS - substantial

V

VERBUM
- word, verb
VERITAS - truth
VERITAS COMPOSITIONIS - truth of composition
VERUM - the true
VESTIGIUM - footprint, vestige, trace
VIATOR - wayfarer, one on the way
VIRTUS - power, virtue
VIRTUS AFFECTIVA - affective power
VIRTUS APPREHENSIVA - apprehensive power
VIS - power, faculty, strength
VOLUNTAS - will
VOX - word, spoken word, voice